We always hear about these Supermassive Black Hole that they eating or gobble it up. But sometime ago astronomers have discovered some new stars whose origins have been linked to a run away Black hole.
A Runaway Black Hole
Black holes are the most amazing and in a sense mysterious object of our universe. But we know that black holes actually exist. In this regard many articles are present so click here and read it for more information gain. Overall black holes are found in two flavors. One is the result of the end of stars. If some star is at least 20 times the mass of our sun are more than that
After its ending one such object remains whose gravity is so much that even light will not be able to escape from it. Because we see things through light that is why we call it Black hole.
Our Sun become a black hole
There are some other things too. Up till now the guess is the law of physics are some breakdown in the black hole and if your question is will our sun become a black hole sometime the answer is no. The end of our sun will be such a core which will be equal to our earth.
That will be astonishing but it (Sun) will not become a black hole.
Are there black holes are very big sized. Astronomers call them supermassive black holes.
Supermassive black holes are found in the center of the galaxy (as our galaxy the Milky Way)
Our own supermassive black holes found in the center of the Milky Way is about 4mn times the mass of our sun. MDs supermassive Black hole are present in almost all the big galaxies and most of them are much bigger than our Milky Way black hole.
How supermassive black holes form?
Now how did these supermassive Black holes form? We do not know yet. Astronomers have theories. Something this supermassive black holes was formed due to collapse of many stars in the galaxies or maybe the supermassive Black hole were formed at the beginning of the universe and the galaxies formed around it. Which theory among them is correct? Astronomers do not know yet.
As you know, our mission of the James Webb space telescope is to find out the origin of the supermassive Black holes. By the way where are intermediate mass black holes also, but these black holes neither belong here nor there. We will talk about them so other time.
But you are very familiar with these supermassive Black holes. The reason is a few years from today (you may remember it) a picture of the outside of the event Horizon of a black hole big came very famous.
This picture is of the supermassive Black hole at the center of the galaxy M-87. This was taken by the joint efforts of 13 telescopes present on this earth. These 13 telescopes acted like one telescope and with their combination this picture was taken of the immediate outside of the black hole. This picture was of the light just before it went into the black hole.
This black hole of M-87 is 6.5 billion times the mass of our sun. You can imagine how bigger it is from the black hole of our Milky Way. That galaxy is also bigger than our Milky Way.
Now, this was a very beautiful picture but recently (a few weeks before) astronomers via machine learning (artificial intelligence) have improved this picture. This is a complicated thing because if you are trying to batter it and do not want to add some artifacts or your own information.
But the picture to seeing now is of the event Horizon off the black hole but it has come very much into focus.
Now astronomers have started using this new technique, but it is a necessity to be very careful in that. Here I just want to tell you that this is a supermassive black hole which is in the center of the galaxy M-87 me and you are seeing the light on the outside of the event Horizon.
The black hole of M-87 is quiet big black black holes bigger than this are present in our universe.
New supermassive Black hole formed
Just last month a paper has been published. There is a galaxy named Abell 1201. Astronomers have measured the mass of a black hole at its centre and it is 30 billion times the mass of our Sun. This is massive black hole. The mass of this particular black hole of Abell 1201 has been calculated by using the gravitational lensing technique
The mass of this particular blackhole of Abell 1201 has been calculated by using gravitational lensing technique. But this also is not the biggest black hole. The record holder at the present is galaxy Ton 618 and the estimate is it’s black hole is at least 40 million times the mass of our sun and estimate come, because there are many uncertainties in these type of things and it (black hole) can we 60 to 65 billion times the mass of our sun.
You will say these are so huge black holes and still we call them supermassive black holes. Some astronomers now classify them as ultra massive black holes. If you want to please yourself, you can say this is another type of black hole but in a way, this is a continuation of the supermassive Black hole because the guess is the formation mechanism of all these (black holes) is the same.
But today I want to talk about an extra ordinary feature, detected by astronomers in a galaxy, which is 7.6 billion light years away from us.
It is so far but this feature was seen in an image of Hubble space telescope. Often our focus today is on James Webb space telescope but do not forger Hubble space telescope.
The first thing is it still has importance. It is still working at its wavelength is in visible light so it is very practical. This image in which streak is visible in front of the galaxy first they did not know whether this was a defect of the image or these cosmic rays, high energy particles as protons moving around in the universe which passed through the camera’s detector and a streak is formed.
But this time of astronomers in Yale university was leading. Pieter Van Dokkum and Imad Pasha a graduate student to led the team. They checked out and found this is not because of cosmic rays rather this is a line of stars newlyformed stars. In fact the line formed so far away its scale is almost 200000 light years big.
If you need a comparison, it is double the size of our Milky Way galaxy. This is an astonishing thing that this is a galaxy there is a line of stars in front of it which astronomers call ‘Contrail’ as is made by aero planes. This is a very strange type line of new stars present, but how did the stars form in this sort of line.
How did the stars form in this sort of line.
Astronomers think that these stars these newly formed stars are in line because of a supermassive Black hole. The idea is this black hole whose mass is 20 million times of our sun meaning it is bigger than the black hole of our Milky Way ejected from the center of the galaxy. There were gases present in the direction it went interstellar or intergalactic (you can call them) but mostly Interstellar.
When this Black hole at such speed, it is estimated at 6 million kilometers per hour. If you try to understand this black hole reached the Moon from Earth in 14 minutes. when the black hole at speed passed near these gases it compressed those gases. Astronomers call this shockwave.
If something is going at high speed the shock compress the gas and new stars are formed when this sort of compression of gas take place. Normally there are many other reasons such as a supernova explosion nearby or compression took place due to the collision and stars are formed.
But in this case astronomers think this black hole this supermassive Black hole which ejected from the galaxy went past this material at such speed that it formed new stars over there. And as it kept going forward (it is going outside) it is leaving behind a line of new stars.
It’s speed is very high and one astonishing a thing is, this is such a black hole (going at such pace) that does not have time to gobble up things eat gases. But due to its speed and the resulting compression many new stars are forming.
But this black hole supermassive why did it come out from inside the galaxy.
This is a complex story The basic idea is all the galaxies as I said, the big galaxies have a supermassive Black hole in its center. And the idea is 50 million years from today two galaxies collided with one another and we know galaxies collide. Rather in a few billion years there will be a collision of our Milky Way and Andromeda Galaxy. There is a supermassive Black hole in the Milky Way also in Andromeda Galaxy.
Astronomers think that these two galaxies collided with one another 50 million years ago and the black holes in the center. In a way became bindery black holes. About two weeks before other paper has been published by astronomers in which a study of two supermassive Black hole nearing one another after the merger of galaxies mentioned.
This is not an unlikely thing not an unexpected thing. When galaxies collide and if there are supermassive black holes in the middle those supermassive Black holes come into each other’s orbit in the resulting galaxy, that is the binary black holes.
But in this case a third galaxy also collided which has another supermassive Black hole in it.
Now there are three supermassive Black holes involved in the merger and there are three objects involved there are unstable and chaotic.
And if there are three objects often one object from them shoots out or ejects from the system. We don’t know which black hole ejected.
The guess is that (comparatively) the one with the least mass from the three probably got shot out because of which we are seeing this line of stars formation is meaning due to the presence of these three supermassive Black hole in the center of respective galaxies one black hole ejected out of the galaxy. And when it started to go out at high speed, it compressed the gases, and because of the compression of the gases new stars were formed.
Not only this, but astronomers believe that when these kinds of interaction occur in which one object moves to one side other remaining objects also get a little kick due to the conservation of linear momentum. The idea is that this line of stars we see was because of supermassive Black hole. But on the opposite side this binary black holes that were left probably went to the other side.
And astronomers have noticed a faint line in that direction as well, but the idea is that there probably was not as much gas in that other direction, so stars didn’t form. But the little bit of interstellar material there was shocked and it’s only because of that shock that its light is visible. So this is a fascinating object it is a fascinating idea.
And the galaxy that is the main culprit, the idea is, from which one black hole went in One Direction and a binary black hole in another. It doesn’t have a black hole in the middle, so that gives you a little more circumstantial evidence that maybe the theory is correct.
Astronomers have seen other things in it, wondering if they are seeing jets that are often found in the galaxies.
Whether they are really stars or not, and in all these things, it seems at this point that this theory is probably correct. But as you can imagine, follow up, observations mean now will be made by the James Webb space telescope and the Chandra X-ray telescope also. And then they can find out more detail about the stars that formed. And they may succeed in detecting, supermassive black holes in the surrounding areas through x-ray observations.
Before I go, I would like to assure you that objects of this type or system of this type are quite unusual. So it’s not like supermassive Black holes are running around, it was a very unusual kind of thing.
So if you have a question whether a blackhole is going to pass through our solar system, near our earth than it is not so. At least we have no evidence of this. But what I would ask you to focus on is that, think that these new stars formed the line you are seeing must be having planets around them because we know that there are planets around almost every star and who knows there is life also on these planets.
And maybe the life over there must have evolved that intelligence is present there may be some astronomers can be found on these planets. Who are thinking how their star, their solar system was formed. And they might discover that their origins are due to a supermassive Black hole.
That black hole which was ejected from the center of the nearby galaxy, visible to them due to the compression of the gases their a solar system was formed. I think this would be a very cool origin story.